41. A Working Tool for the New Evangelization

Instrumentum Laboris are the Latin words for “working tool”. In the ecclesiastical language it is the document that will serve as the basis for discussion at the next Synod of Bishops that will take place at the Vatican (7-28 October 2012) on “The New Evangelization for the Transmission of the Christian Faith”. The eighty page text is the summary of responses received from Episcopal conferences, the Roman Curia and the Religious Orders to a set of questions asked in 2011 about the New Evangelization (NE). About 70% of the various departments of the Roman Catholic Church responded and their feedback was condensed in the Instrumentum Laboris.

            This is not the official document of the Synod but a preparatory one. The final text will be the Post-Synodical Exhortation that the Pope will issue after the Synod. Nevertheless it gives the pulse of what is happening around the NE given the fact that NE will be perhaps the most defining feature of Roman Catholicism for the next decade.

1. Towards a Definition of the New Evangelization

The expression New Evangelization has been floating around since 1979 when John Paul II began to use it. Since then it has become a keyword in his pontificate as well as in Benedict XVI’s. With the Instrumentum Laboris it eventually reaches its technical definition: “Evangelization is the missio ad gentes (i.e. mission to the peoples) directed to those who do not know Christ. In a wider sense, it is used to describe ordinary pastoral work, while the phrase ‘new evangelization’ designates pastoral outreach to those who no longer practice the Christian faith” (n. 85). This will become the standard definition. As it appears, the Christian West is the primary object of the NE where the first evangelization occurred centuries if not millennia ago and where the RC Church has traditionally been strong and influential, but is now losing its grip. The NE is an attempt to call the masses of non-practicing, baptized Catholics back to the life of the Church.

2. An Increasing Concern …

Why is the NE necessary? The main reason is that the Christian world today is going through a “silent apostasy” (n. 69). The portrayed picture of the spiritual condition of the West is rather dark. The different components of the Church report “a weakening of faith in Christian communities, a diminished regard for the authority of the magisterium, an individualistic approach to belonging to the Church, a decline in religious practice and a disengagement in transmitting the faith to the new generation” (n. 48). In short, the modern world is characterized by the “de-Christianization of many ordinary people”.

            As a result of this worrying trend, some are taking the path of secularization (i.e. practical agnosticism), others are trapped in the “spread of sects” (n. 13). The term “sect” is left undefined, so it is impossible to ascertain who they are. In another passage, there is a reference to new religious groups that exercise “emotional and psychological dominance”, promise “prosperity and success in life”, and use “aggressive, proselytizing methods” (n. 66). Clearly, some prosperity gospel movements are involved here, but a more careful description of what is meant by “sect” would be useful, due to the widespread and derogatory usage of the label to indicate various non-Catholic groups.

            The bulk of the document is a rehearsal of various reasons (e.g. cultural, economic, sociological, religious, technological, etc.) for why the “de-Christianization” has taken place and therefore why the NE has become vital for the present and future of the Roman Catholic Church.

3.  … But Little Self-Criticism

Much of the text suggests bits and pieces of analysis of “external” threats that make it urgent to invest in the NE and that the Synod will need to work out in a more organic way. The world (i.e. the West) is to blame for the “silent apostasy”. Secularization is the enemy. Sects are dangerous competitors. Therefore the overall response of the Church should be to do with greater enthusiasm, energy and zeal that which it has been doing thus far. The terms used are “new fervor”, “fresh enthusiasm”, “new incentive”, “rekindled energy”. The message is that the NE is what the Church has been doing for ages, only with more passion and conviction. This is the reason why every practice of the Church is involved in the NE: sacraments, catechesis, popular practices, Marian devotion, etc. The NE is the usual and the whole program of the RC Church which is now being done with more intensity.

            What is striking is the near absence of a self-critical reading of the situation, as if the “de-Christianization” of the West just happened out of the blue, without the Church having any responsibility in the matter. There is no ecclesiological self-questioning (e.g. is there a problem in our vision of the church?), nor theological interrogation (e.g. is secularization also the reflection of our own failures?), nor moral self-analysis (e.g. do the recent scandals and failures have a role in the apostasy of many?). There is instead a thoroughgoing self-affirming attitude. To be honest, there is only one line in the text where the Instrumentum Laboris says that some RC circles ask whether “the lack of effects in evangelization today is the result of ecclesial and spiritual factors” (n. 39). Exactly which factors are not mentioned and the request is not developed further. Later there is a passing comment concerning the fact that some lament “the excessive bureaucratic character of ecclesiastical structures” and  “the excessively formal character of liturgical celebrations” (n. 69). Full stop. One line out of eighty pages.

            The hope is that the Synod will be more self-critical. Today’s “de-Christianization” has much more complex reasons than the sociological ones and Christians of any sort, instead of pointing the finger first, should repent before God for all their sins and be open to change according to the Word of God. This will be the beginning of the New Evangelization.

Leonardo De Chirico

leonardo.dechirico@ifeditalia.org

Rome, 27th June 2012

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    31. The New Evangelization and Its Silences

    The New Evangelization is the buzzword for much of what happens at the Vatican. It could well become the catchword of Ratzinger’s entire pontificate given the attention that is receiving. Benedict XVI instituted a new Pontifical Council in 2010 entirely dedicated to the New Evangelization. The latter is mentioned in nearly all his speeches and is slowly but steadily becoming the overarching theme of many projects sponsored by the Vatican.

                The President of the newly created Vatican department, Msgr. Rino Fisichella, has just published a book (La nuova evangelizzazione, Milano: Mondadori, 2011) where he spells out the significance of the New Evangelization and offers an interesting perspective on the direction that this initiative is going to take. Fisichella was professor of Fundamental Theology (i.e. the RC way of defining a discipline between Apologetics and Systematic Theology) for many years and then Rector of the Lateran Pontifical University, one of the major and most prestigious academic institutions in Rome. After spending much of his life reflecting on the often turbulent relationship between faith and the modern world, Benedict XVI called him to lead the Vatican efforts towards mobilizing the RC Church towards the New Evangelization. From the chair to the square, so to speak.

    1. What the New Evangelization is About

    Fisichella makes clear that the New Evangelization applies to those countries where the RC Church was established in ancient times and where the first proclamation of the Gospel resounded many centuries ago. He acknowledges the fact that the word “evangelization” and the vocabulary around it has been treated with suspicion in RC circles due to its “protestant” usage and overtones. Mission and catechesis were more traditional and preferred terms for a long time. It is only after Vatican II that the language of evangelization began to be used.

                The expression “New Evangelization” was coined by John Paul II in 1979 and subsequently achieved a technical theological meaning. Its specificity has to do with its recipients, i.e. the masses that have been baptized in the RC Church but have “lost a living sense of their faith”. The goal of the New Evangelization is to call them back to the mother church.

    2. Why the New Evangelization is Needed

    Fisichella embarks on the attempt of analyzing what has caused such a transition to practical unbelief. The root of the Western crisis is the transformation of the process of secularization in a strong movement towards secularism. The former is a sociological process which reflects pluralism, the latter is a new dogmatic religion which is anti-Christian. This new stance forgets the rich “synthesis between Greek-Roman thought and Christianity” and replaces it with an ideology of religious indifference and relativism. In a telling comment, Fisichella argues that “the pathology that afflicts the world today is cultural” and is to be entirely attributed to secularism.

                This is a standard reading of Western cultural trends from a traditional point of view. What is striking in Fisichella’s otherwise nuanced reconstruction is the lack of self-criticism as far as the RC Church is concerned. It seems that the charge of the present-day crisis lies in secularism only, whereas churches seem to bear no responsibility. Even when he deplores the profound ignorance that most people show as far as the tenets of the Christian faith is concerned, he skips over the rather obvious point about who is to blame (at least partially but truly) for it. Are we sure that European churches do not bear any responsibility in today’s spiritual and cultural crisis, especially when they claim to have 70%, 80%, 90% of baptized in most countries? Isn’t there something wrong in their theology of Christian initiation? Isn’t there a problem in their catechetical impact? Isn’t there something awkward in their witness to the Gospel? In the end, are churches blameless in the Western spiritual turmoil? For Fisichella, the issue is not even mentioned.

    3. New Evangelization … New Humanism

    The New Evangelization is needed because the West has turned away from its Christian roots and it is time to reverse the tide. According to Fisichella, the battle ground is cultural, the issue at stake is anthropological, the task before the Church is to promote a New Humanism, i.e. a more advanced synthesis between Christian values and the Greek-Roman heritage through the rediscovery of the virtue of coherence on the part of Christians. The New Evangelization will be a means to achieve this ambitious goal, a goal that Benedict XVI wholly embraces and proactively spearheads.

    So far, the narrative of the New Evangelization does not contain crucial biblical words like repentance from past and present mistakes, confession of sin, conversion to Jesus Christ. If the New Evangelization is to bear its fruit there is no other way than the biblical one.

     

    Leonardo De Chirico

    leonardo.dechirico@ifeditalia.org

     

    Rome, 7th February 2012

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